From calorimetric characterisation to process control ...
From microwave volume heating to the G/L contactor ...
From thermal recovery to chemical recovery ...
lIndustrial safety is a major focus for the Normandy region, with a dense and diversified industrial fabric (nuclear energy, gas, chemicals, storage of hazardous materials) and companies classified as SEVESO. Among the main causes of accidents, thermal runaway of reaction masses is one of the most common; the tools and methods for predicting and characterising it are still being researched. Understanding the phenomena involved in this type of accident, which remains fairly difficult given the wide variety of substances and chemical reactions involved, enables us to better characterise the reaction media and assess the margin of confidence in the event of malfunctions.
Preventing runaway requires, on the one hand, a study of the thermokinetics of chemical syntheses in normal and degraded mode, which is essential for calculating the safety parameters of chemical processes: the temperature for which the runaway time is 24 h in adiabatic conditions (TD24) or the temperature rise of the reaction medium in adiabatic mode (ΔTad) or the time available until the maximum reaction speed (TMRad). It is also necessary to study the dynamic behaviour of chemical reactors.
The approach adopted by the researchers consists of :
- Better understanding of processes
- Identify normal operating mode
- Identify degraded operating mode
- Detect and locate malfunctions.
The work developed in this area aims to intensify the processes studied by using techniques to reduce the scale or increase efficiency without necessarily moving towards miniaturisation of the installations. The main techniques used are microwaves, plasma and heterogeneous catalysis. The project is structured around 3 themes: microwaves, CO2 capture and recovery, and hydrogen. The theme of hydrogen as an energy carrier concerns the use of hydrogen as a CO2 recovery agent for methanation and methanolation, as well as the study of chemical transport methods.
Biomass has considerable potential as a renewable source of both energy and chemicals, given its abundance and distribution across the planet. The development and use of biomass requires the design and optimisation of efficient and competitive processes. At the LSPC, the theme of biomass valorisation is developed in two parts: chemical valorisation and thermochemical transformation.